For much of the 20th century, fathers in California and across the United States were usually not granted sole child custody rights. Judges usually granted full rights to mothers. Today, courts are more likely to award shared parental custody. Courts currently presume that divorced parents have joint legal custody of their children. Legal custody involves a child's school and educational opportunities, religious upbringing and health care issues. In addition, the court encourages both mothers and fathers to raise their children in dual residences.